VIM的基本命令使用以及插件配置

  • 好不容易用英语写完了, 懒得翻译了

目录

Basic Usage

Normal Mode:

  • First Open file with VIM command, with get into Normal Mode
  • hjkl :
  • dd : delete current line
  • x : delete current character
  • yy : copy current line
  • p : paste. It will paste last copied, cut or deleted texts.
  • ^ : go to first non-blank character in current line, $ to the end
  • u : undo, <C-r> : redo. g-/g+ : go to older/newer text state
  • . : repeat last action
  • N<command> : repeat Command N times. For example, 2dd : delete two line
  • gg: go to first line, G : Go to last line, NG : Go to line N (N stands for a number, for example, 10G)
  • w : move cursor to the beginning of next word, e : move cursor to the end of next word
  • % : match the closest {, [, (
  • * : search forward for the occurrence of the word nearest to the cursor., # : search backward.

Insert Mode:

  • i : Get into Insert Mode, Esc back to Normal Mode
  • I : Start to insert text at the beginning of the current line
  • o : Begin a new line below the cursor and insert text
  • O : Begin a new line above the cursor and insert text

Command Mode:

  • Execute command (:), search patterns (/ and ?), and filter commands (!)
  • :wq : Save then quit, :q: Quit, :w: Save, :q!: Quit current file without saving, :qa! Quit all files without saving
  • :e <path/to/file> : Open another file
  • :saveas <path/to/file> : Save as another file

Advance Usage

Insert Mode:

  • gi : goto Insert mode where you left it last time

Normal Mode:

  • <C-y>, <C-e> : check the text above or below the cursor
  • <C-w>w : Switch windows between last one and current one
  • <C-w><dir> : <dir> can be hjkl, switch windows to left, down, up or right.
  • to move at current line
    • 0 → head
    • ^ → non-blank head
    • $ → end
    • g_ → non-blank end
    • fa → to next character a
    • t, → to the character right before the next ,
    • 3fa → to the third a
    • F, T → same as f, t with reverse direction

      line_moves

  • manipulate a text block <C-v>, for example:

    • add prefixes to multi lines

      rectangular-blocks `

      • ^ → to the head of the line
      • <C-v> → Start to select a block of text
      • <C-d> → to move downward, you also can use hjkl or % instead
      • I-- → Insert --
      • [ESC] → to make effects to every line
    • append text to multi lines

      append-to-many-lines

      • <C-v> → Choose lines (You can also use j, <C-d>, /pattern, %, etc.
      • $ → move cursor to the end
      • A → start to input text, type press ESC
    • indentation

      autoindent

      • J → convert multi lines to single line
      • < > → indent to left or right
      • = → auto indent

Visual Mode:

  • Block Choosing <action>a<object> or <action>i<object>
    • <action> can be any actions, like d(delete), y(copy), v(text selecting).
    • <object> can be w(a word), W(a phrase), s(a sentance), p(a paragraph), or a special symbol like ", ', ), }, ].
    • For example:

      textobjects

      • vi" → foo
      • va" → “foo”
      • vi) → “foo”
      • va) → (“foo”)
      • v2i) → map (+) (“foo”)
      • v2a) → (map (+) (“foo”))

Command Mode:

  • :split : split window horizontally, :vsplit : split window vertically.
  • q : Record typed characters into register, then repeat them.
    • qa : record every action into register a
    • @a : replay it
    • @@ : to replay the latest register
    • For example:

      macros

      • In this text file, only have “1” in it, start to input: qaYp<C-a>q

        • qa → start to record
        • yyp → copy current line to next line
        • <C-a> → add 1
        • q → stop recording
        • @a → write down 2 under 1
        • @@ → write down 3 under 2
        • [email protected]@ → repeat it 100 times.
  • :[range]s/<pattern>/<replace>/{flags} : replace text
    • TODO
    • [range]

Plugins

Explanations of Important Keywords

  • <Leader>: default is \, you can change it by using let mapleader = ',' in .vimrc file.
  • <CR>: equals <Return> \& <Enter>
  • <S-...> : shift-key
  • <C-...>: control-key
  • <M-...> & <A-...>: alt-key
  • <D-...>: command-key (Mac only)
  • g:: means globally. Example:
    • let g:last_active_tab = 1 toggle switch between current tab and the last one globally.
  • remap: Allows for mappings to work recursively.
  • noremap: Only a single entry. Can NOT be remapped.
  • n & v & s & i: prefixes, n stands for Normal mode, v stands for Visual mode, s stands for Select Mode, i stands for Insert Mode. Example:
    • nnoremap <C-t> :tabnew<CR>: remap Ctrl + t to create a new tab
    • inoremap <C-t> <Esc>:tabnew<CR>: same as last one, with an escape action additionally.
  • <Plug>: in .vimrc file, it has two meanings. First, it’s visible out of the plugin scripts. And the second, use structure <Plug> scriptname mapname to avoid confliction with other plugins. For example: <Plug>TypecorrAdd, Typecorr is the script name, and Add is the function name.
  • <SID>: is the script ID and not visible outside. Compare with <Plug>, it’s more like private function to other scrips. So can’t use it out of the script. Example:

    " ,en ,ep to jump between errors
    function! <SID>LocationPrevious()
      try
          lprev
      catch /^Vim\%((\a\+)\)\=:E553/
          llast
      endtry
    endfunction
    
    function! <SID>LocationNext()
      try
          lnext
      catch /^Vim\%((\a\+)\)\=:E553/
          lfirst
      endtry
    endfunction
    
    nnoremap <silent> <Plug>LocationPrevious :<C-u>exe 'call <SID>LocationPrevious()'<CR>
    nnoremap <silent> <Plug>LocationNext :<C-u>exe 'call <SID>LocationNext()'<CR>
    nmap <silent> <Leader>ep <Plug>LocationPrevious
    nmap <silent> <Leader>en <Plug>LocationNext
    
  • <silence>: to make a key mapping can`t be echoed on the command line
  • <expr> take the argument as expression. For example: inoremap <expr> <C-L> ListItem(), ListItem is a function which is mapped with Ctrl + L.

unblevable/quick-scope

  • Github Repo: unblevable/quick-scope
  • Useage: highlights which characters to target for f, F and family.
  • Key Mapping:

    let g:qs_highlight_on_keys = ['f', 'F', 't', 'T'] //
    

ntpeters/vim-better-whitespace

  • Github Repo: ntpeters/vim-better-whitespace
  • Useage: clean extra whitespace.
  • Key Mapping:

    nnoremap <silent> <Leader><Space> :StripWhitespace<CR>
    autocmd FileType c,cpp,java,go,php,javascript,puppet,python,rust,twig,xml,yml,perl autocmd BufWritePre <buffer> StripWhitespace
    let g:better_whitespace_filetypes_blacklist=['diff', 'gitcommit', 'unite', 'qf', 'help']
    

Vim-CtrlSpace

  • Github Repo: vim-ctrlspace/vim-ctrlspace
  • Useage:
    • bookmarks for your favorite projects
    • workspaces (sessions)
    • tabs / buffers / files management
    • fast fuzzy searching powered by Go
  • Shortkeys:
    • Ctrl + Space : open ctrl space command line
    • b : bookmark list
    • w : workspace list in current bookmark
    • l : tab list in current workspace
    • o : file list in current workspace
    • h : buffer list in current workspace, this is default list when you hit ctrl + space
    • / : Into Search Mode, type it again will close search mode. Aka, B, W, L, O, H with uppercase will open the same list with Search Mode
    • i : switch directory (when you on the buffer list)
    • a : all the files are opend in current workspace
    • s : save current workspace/bookmark, then <CR> to confirm
    • d : delete a file from current buffer or file list
    • j,k : switch items, then <CR> to confirm
    • m : rename bookmark or workspace(when you on the workspace list or bookmark list)
  • Key Mapping:

    if has("gui_running")
    " Settings for MacVim and Inconsolata font
      let g:CtrlSpaceSymbols = { "File": "◯", "CTab": "▣", "Tabs": "▢" }
    endif
    if executable("ag")
      let g:CtrlSpaceGlobCommand = 'ag -l --nocolor -g ""'
    endif
    let g:CtrlSpaceSearchTiming = 500
    hi link CtrlSpaceNormal   PMenu
    hi link CtrlSpaceSelected PMenuSel
    hi link CtrlSpaceSearch   Search
    hi link CtrlSpaceStatus   StatusLine
    nnoremap <silent><C-p> :CtrlSpace O<CR>
    let g:CtrlSpaceLoadLastWorkspaceOnStart = 1
    let g:CtrlSpaceSaveWorkspaceOnSwitch = 1
    let g:CtrlSpaceSaveWorkspaceOnExit = 1
    

scrooloose/nerdtree & jistr/vim-nerdtree-tabs

  • TODO

  • Github Repo: scrooloose/nerdtree & jistr/vim-nerdtree-tabs
  • Useage: to explore filesystem and to open files and directories.
  • Key Mapping:

    " nerdtree
    map <C-n> :NERDTreeToggle<CR>
    let NERDTreeHighlightCursorline=1
    let NERDTreeIgnore=[ '\.pyc$', '\.pyo$', '\.obj$', '\.o$', '\.so$', '\.egg$', '^\.git$', '^\.svn$', '^\.hg$' ]
    "close vim if the only window left open is a NERDTree
    autocmd bufenter * if (winnr("$") == 1 && exists("b:NERDTreeType") && b:NERDTreeType == "primary") | q | end
    let g:NERDTreeMapOpenSplit = 's'
    let g:NERDTreeMapOpenVSplit = 'v'
    let g:NERDTreeWinSize=26
    
    " nerdtreetabs
    map <C-n> <plug>NERDTreeTabsToggle<CR>
    let g:nerdtree_tabs_synchronize_view=0
    let g:nerdtree_tabs_synchronize_focus=0
    let g:nerdtree_tabs_open_on_console_startup=0
    let g:nerdtree_tabs_open_on_gui_startup=0
    

syntastic

  • Github Repo: vim-syntastic/syntastic
  • Useage: a syntax checking plugin
  • Key Mapping:

    execute pathogen#infect()
    
    let g:syntastic_error_symbol='>>'
    let g:syntastic_warning_symbol='>'
    let g:syntastic_check_on_open=1
    let g:syntastic_check_on_wq=0
    let g:syntastic_enable_highlighting=1
    
    " checkers
    let g:syntastic_php_checkers = ['php', 'phpcs', 'phpmd']
    let g:syntastic_python_checkers=['pyflakes', 'pep8'] " 使用pyflakes,速度比pylint快
    let g:syntastic_python_pep8_args='--ignore=E501,E225,E124,E712'
    let g:syntastic_javascript_checkers = ['jsl', 'jshint']
    " let g:syntastic_markdown_checkers = ['proselint']
    let g:syntastic_html_checkers=['tidy', 'jshint']
    
    set statusline+=%#warningmsg#
    set statusline+=%{SyntasticStatuslineFlag()}
    set statusline+=%*
    
    " to see error location list
    let g:syntastic_always_populate_loc_list = 1
    let g:syntastic_enable_signs = 1
    let g:syntastic_auto_loc_list = 0
    let g:syntastic_auto_jump = 0
    
    highlight SyntasticErrorSign guifg=white guibg=black
    

YouCompleteMe

  • Github Repo: Valloric/YouCompleteMe
  • Useage: code completion
  • Key Mapping:

    let g:ycm_key_list_select_completion=['<C-j>']
    let g:ycm_key_list_previous_completion=['<C-k>']
    let g:ycm_complete_in_comments = 1
    let g:ycm_complete_in_strings = 1
    let g:ycm_use_ultisnips_completer = 1
    let g:ycm_collect_identifiers_from_comments_and_strings = 1
    let g:ycm_collect_identifiers_from_tags_files = 1
    let g:ycm_seed_identifiers_with_syntax=1
    let g:ycm_goto_buffer_command = 'horizontal-split'
    
    nnoremap <leader>jd :YcmCompleter GoToDefinitionElseDeclaration<CR>
    nnoremap <leader>gd :YcmCompleter GoToDeclaration<CR>
    
    if !empty(glob("~/.vim/bundle/YouCompleteMe/third_party/ycmd/cpp/ycm/.ycm_extra_conf.py"))
        let g:ycm_global_ycm_extra_conf = "~/.vim/bundle/YouCompleteMe/third_party/ycmd/cpp/ycm/.ycm_extra_conf.py"
    endif
    

vim-easymotion

  • Github Repo: easymotion/vim-easymotion
  • Usage: Provides a much simpler way to use some motions in vim.
  • Keys Mapping:

    let g:EasyMotion_smartcase = 1
    
    " <Leader>f{char} to move to {char}
    map  <Leader><Leader>f <Plug>(easymotion-bd-f)
    nmap <Leader><Leader>f <Plug>(easymotion-overwin-f)
    
    " s{char}{char} to move to {char}{char}
    nmap s <Plug>(easymotion-overwin-f2)
    
    " Move to line
    map  <Leader><Leader>l <Plug>(easymotion-bd-jk)
    nmap <Leader><Leader>l <Plug>(easymotion-overwin-line)
    

easyalign

  • Github Repo: junegunn/vim-easy-align
  • Usage: alignment
  • Keys Mapping:

    vmap ga <Plug>(EasyAlign)
    nmap ga <Plug>(EasyAlign)
    let g:easy_align_ignore_groups = ['Comment', 'String']
    let g:easy_align_delimiters = {
       \ '>': { 'pattern': '>>\|=>\|>' },
       \ '/': {
       \     'pattern':         '//\+\|/\*\|\*/',
       \     'delimiter_align': 'l',
       \     'ignore_groups':   ['!Comment'] },
       \ ']': {
       \     'pattern':       '[[\]]',
       \     'left_margin':   0,
       \     'right_margin':  0,
       \     'stick_to_left': 0
       \   },
       \ ')': {
       \     'pattern':       '[()]',
       \     'left_margin':   0,
       \     'right_margin':  0,
       \     'stick_to_left': 0
       \   },
       \ 'd': {
       \     'pattern':      ' \(\S\+\s*[;=]\)\@=',
       \     'left_margin':  0,
       \     'right_margin': 0
       \   }
       \ }
    

NerdTree

  • Github Repo: scrooloose/nerdtree
  • Usage: to explore your filesystem and to open files and directories.
  • Keys Mapping:

    map <leader>n :NERDTreeToggle<CR>
    let NERDTreeShowBookmarks=1
    let NERDTreeHighlightCursorline=1
    let NERDTreeIgnore=[ '\.pyc$', '\.pyo$', '\.obj$', '\.o$', '\.so$', '\.egg$', '^\.git$', '^\.svn$', '^\.hg$' ]
    "close vim if the only window left open is a NERDTree
    autocmd bufenter * if (winnr("$") == 1 && exists("b:NERDTreeType") && b:NERDTreeType == "primary") | q | end
    let g:NERDTreeMapOpenSplit = 's'
    let g:NERDTreeMapOpenVSplit = 'v'
    let g:NERDTreeWinSize=26
    

NERDCommenter

  • Github Repo: scrooloose/nerdcommenter
  • Usage: to wrangle your code comments.
  • Shortkeys:
    • [count]<leader>cc : Comment out the current line or text selected in visual mode.
    • [count]<leader>c<space> : Toggles the comment state of the selected line(s). If the topmost selected line is commented, all selected lines are uncommented and vice versa.
    • [count]<leader>cs : Comments out the selected lines with a pretty block formatted layout.
    • [count]<leader>ci : Toggles the comment state of the selected line(s) individually.
  • Keys Mapping:

    " Add spaces after comment delimiters by default
    let g:NERDSpaceDelims = 1
    " Use compact syntax for prettified multi-line comments
    let g:NERDCompactSexyComs = 1
    " Align line-wise comment delimiters flush left instead of following code indentation
    let g:NERDDefaultAlign = 'left'
    " Allow commenting and inverting empty lines (useful when commenting a region)
    let g:NERDCommentEmptyLines = 1
    

Airline

  • Github Repo: vim-airline/vim-airline
  • Usage: rich statusbar.

  • Keys Mapping:

    if !exists('g:airline_symbols')
        let g:airline_symbols = {}
    endif
    
    let g:airline_mode_map = {
        \ '__' : '-',
        \ 'n'  : 'N',
        \ 'i'  : 'I',
        \ 'R'  : 'R',
        \ 'c'  : 'C',
        \ 'v'  : 'V',
        \ 'V'  : 'V',
        \ '' : 'V',
        \ 's'  : 'S',
        \ 'S'  : 'S',
        \ '' : 'S',
        \ }
    
    let g:airline_left_sep = '❯'
    let g:airline_right_sep = '❮'
    let g:airline_symbols.linenr = '¶'
    let g:airline_symbols.branch = '⎇'